Acute & Chronic Sinus Infection

Surgical Treatment & Medical Management of ENT Disorders

Surgical Treatment & Medical Management of ENT Disorders

Sinusitis, or a sinus infection, occurs when the sinuses and nasal passages become inflamed or swelled. Air is intended to fill the sinuses, but when they become blocked and filled with fluid, lack of air can cause germs (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) to grow and cause infection.
About 37 million Americans suffer from at least one episode of sinusitis each year. People who have the following conditions have a higher risk of sinusitis:

Nasal mucous membrane swelling

Blockage of drainage ducts

Structural differences that narrow the drainage ducts

Nasal polyps

Conditions that result in an increased risk of infection such as immune deficiencies or taking medications that suppress the immune system.

In adults, the leading contributing factors of sinusitis are infections and smoking. While in children, common environmental factors contributing to sinusitis include allergies, illnesses from other children at day care or school, bottle drinking while lying on one’s back, and smoke in the air.
Most sinus infections are caused by a virus while bacteria sinusitis infections are rare. Other causes of sinusitis include:


Pollutants (airborne chemicals or irritants)

Fungal infections

Structural problems within the nasal cavity

A weak immune system

Acute Sinusitis

Acute sinusitis is caused by bacteria and needs to be treated with antibiotics. Acute sinusitis can last 4 weeks, and sub-acute sinusitis can last up to 12 weeks. Acute viral sinusitis, caused by a virus, typically lasts for less than 4 weeks and occurs less than 3 times per year. Acute viral sinusitis generally occurs after having an upper respiratory infection. It will almost always get better on its own and antibiotics will not help. Schedule a follow-up appointment with your Accent ENT Specialist for re-evaluation if symptoms continue for more than 10 days.
Some of the primary symptoms of acute sinusitis include:

Facial pain/pressure

Nasal stuffiness

Nasal discharge

Loss of smell


Additional symptoms may include:

fever, bad breath, fatigue, dental pain

Acute Sinusitis Treatment

For a simple sinus infection, your Accent ENT specialist may recommend treatment with decongestants like Sudafed and steam inhalations. Use of nonprescription decongestant nasal drops or sprays may also be considered. However, decongestant sprays and drops should not be used beyond their recommended use, usually 4 or 5 days, or they may actually increase congestion. When antibiotics are given for a bacterial sinus infection, they are usually given for 10 to 14 days.

Chronic Sinusitis

Chronic sinusitis lasts longer than 4 weeks and occurs frequently –more than 4 times a year. People who experience chronic sinusitis should visit a specialist for evaluation. Chronic sinusitis can be caused by nasal polyps or tumors, allergies, or respiratory tract infections (viral, bacterial, or fungal), among other reasons.
People with chronic sinusitis may have the following symptoms for 8 weeks or more:

Facial congestion/fullness

A nasal obstruction/blockage

Pus in the nasal cavity


Nasal discharge/discolored postnasal drainage

Additional symptoms of chronic sinusitis may include:

headaches, bad breath, fatigue, dental pain

Chronic Sinusitis Treatment

Warm moist air can help alleviate sinus congestion. So it can help to use a vaporizer or inhale steam from hot water. Warm compresses are useful to relieve pain in the nose and sinuses. Saline nose drops are also safe for home use. Use of decongestant nasal drops or sprays should not be used beyond their recommended use of 4 or 5 days. Antibiotics or oral steroids may also be prescribed to reduce inflammation –usually only when other medications have not worked.

Other Treatment Options for Sinusitis

Addressing potential triggers or contributing factors is a key first step in the management of sinusitis. An antihistamine may be recommended for the treatment of allergies. Antifungal medicine may be prescribed for a fungal sinus infection. Immunoglobulin (antibodies) may be given if you have certain immune deficiencies.

Many people with chronic sinus problems are able to manage their conditions with the help of their Accent ENT specialist without having to undergo surgery.

If antibiotics and other medicines are not effective in opening the sinus, surgery may be necessary. Also, if there is a structural abnormality of the sinus such as nasal polyps, which can obstruct sinus drainage, surgery may be needed.

Even if your sinus condition requires surgery, Dr. Kerr possesses extensive experience in numerous minimally invasive procedures.

Minimally invasive procedures are not only more cost effective and less risky, they’re typically outpatient procedures, which save on both time and costs.

And not only do specialists at Accent ENT help address medical conditions of the nose, the Accent family of physicians can also help address cosmetic issues of the nose as well.

Whether you’re looking for basic treatment like prick testing or allergy shots, or have severe sinusitis that may require surgery, we invite you contact Gainesville sinus specialists at Accent ENT today to schedule an appointment.